佛教對不平等的傳統論述以業力為基礎，雖然業力或者說貫穿三世的因果律是佛法的 核心理論，傳統的業力論述往往過於簡化。社會研究顯示，這種過於簡化的論述在許 多境況中有可能被解讀為責怪受害者，也易於被視為是對現有制度和現狀的合理化， 因此是相對保守的。本文首先綜述現代社會中業力詮釋的難題，以及現代佛教徒對此 難題的回應，並指出在社會正義已經儼然成為主流視角的現代社會裡，對不平等的抗 爭已漸漸遍及任何可以帶來歧視和壓迫的分別層面，佛教對不平等和社會變革必須有 更為細致的論述。本文以前人的研究為基礎，嘗試通過佛性的平等觀、緣起的變革 觀、以及普賢菩薩第九願恆順眾生的行動觀，建構佛教對社會正義的論述。在此論述 架構中，致力於社會變革，建立一個沒有壓迫的世界是菩薩行者必須履行的責任。佛 教行者更可借鑒社會工作的反壓迫觀點和實務，特別是其對多元交織性的運用，檢視 自身潛意識中的偏見，面對自身所擁有的特權，及這些特權的社會意義。而反壓迫的 觀點亦可融入佛法的八正道中。反壓迫觀點和實務的審慎運用，是佛教行者反思自身 在延續壓迫性社會關系中所扮演角色的工具，這種反思的覺照對佛教行者在入世的菩 薩道中深化無我的行持以及落實契理契機的菩薩行有增上的作用。
Karma, Social Justice and Lessons from Anti-Oppressive Practice for Buddhist Practitioners
Wei Wu Tan
Traditional Buddhist narratives on inequality are based on the doctrine of karma. While the doctrine of karma or the belief in some universal moral law spanning the past, present and future is an inalienable and essential part of Buddhism, conventional narratives of karma tend to be reductive. When used unskilfully, such narratives could be construed in sociological terms as victim-blaming, as many studies have shown. Moreover, these narratives are often conservative in that they could be seen as order or status-quo preserving. This article reviews the karma conundrum and modern Buddhist responses to the challenges it poses. It is argued that in modern societies where social justice is increasingly becoming the dominant discourse and where the struggle against inequality is being carried out across all differentiating categories that may lead to discrimination and oppression, a more nuanced Buddhist discourse on inequality and social change is necessary. To this end, it builds on past attempts to find a doctrinal basis for social justice from the Buddhist perspective by exploring a Buddhist narrative of social justice based on the doctrine of equality in terms of Buddha nature, the doctrine of change in terms of conditional arising, and the doctrine of action in terms of Samantabhadra’s 9th Vow. Within such a narrative, effecting changes towards a world without oppression is imperative. It then explores the relevance of anti-oppressive practice (AOP) in social work to Buddhist practitioners, focusing on the concept of intersectionality – multiple and intersecting aspects of identity. It examines how the concept of intersectionality may be used to bring unconscious biases to our awareness and force us to confront our privileges. Finally, it places the eightfold path within the context of AOP and argues that judicious use of ideas and practices from AOP can inform Buddhist practitioners of the need to examine their roles in perpetuating oppressive social relations. Such an awareness may help them deepen their practice of selflessness and better realize the bodhisattva path.